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i am new to the turbo world and was wondering if someone could explain exactly how the turbos work. also, what does it mean when the boost gauge reads in the negative?(what is happening mechanically, other than the obvious, no boost)
thanks,
kcalvanovr4
 

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The turbo is motivated by the exhaust gasses coming out of the exhaust manifolds, and when the exhaust "hits" the turbine side (hot side), it causes a "paddle wheel effect", and it turns the shaft, and on the other side of this shaft is the compressor side (cool intake side), and the compressor wheel draws air into the compressor housing, compresses it, and discharges it from the discharge side of the compressor housing. The compressed air gets sent to the intercooler, and then up to the throttle body and when the trottle gets opened it recievs this compressed air. The way the turbine slows down is via a "wastegate", which is a pressure relief opening on the turbine side, and by-passes exhaust from the turbine out into the exhaust to "bleed off" exhaust from entering the turbine housing to keep the turbos spinning. This is how a boost controller works, it takes the vaccum signal that is operating the wastegate actuators, and bleeds it off to keep the wastegates closed longer to direct more exhaust into the turbine housing to produce a higher shaft speed therefore spinning the compressor wheel faster and building more boost. BUT there will be a point where a compressor will spin tooo fast and will start to generate too much heat and the intercooler will not be able to cool down the air and you will get detonation, but this in itself is a whole different story/topic.. But in a nutshell, this is the basic turbo operation explained..
 
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